Instructional Methods and Strategies
A great digital repository is MerlotELIXR. It showcases 70+ multimedia stories that are discipline-specific. This content is not specific to medical education, however, you can gain some ideas on how to implement different instructional methods. We are fortunate that UIC pays for a subscription to Lynda.com. If you are not familiar with it, it is a massive repository of video tutorials where you can learn almost anything. Go to http://go.uic.edu/lynda and log in with your netid/password, and then search for ‘teacher tech tips.’ There are lots of great resources here.
Rather than recreate the wheel, here are some excellent resources from UCSF School of Medicine – Continual Professional Learning.
Active learning refers to the various ways in which learners engage in the learning process that does not include passively listening to lecture. Some connect the terms ‘active learning’ and the ‘flipped classroom.’ They are related, and here is how: according to Moffett (2015), “[t]he flipped classroom is a pedagogical model in which the typical lecture and homework elements of a course are reversed” (p. 331). The ‘active’ portion refers to the in-class experience where there are engaging activities to promote understanding.
Pre-Recorded Lecture Content
One way to bypass the standard lecture in a face-to-face session is to create short, to the point, videos on a particular topic. There are many tools that you can use to create these types of videos, and rely on your instructional designers to help with the process. Some examples include:
- Dr. Amy Lin uses PowToon to create short videos on various topics in Pathology.
- Echo360 Personal Capture
- This is a free service; work with your instructional designers to learn how to use it.
- Adobe Captivate
- Similar to Adobe Captivate, the University of Illinois WebStore sells this product. It is considered easier to use than Captivate with less ramp-up time for learning how to use it.
- This tool is similar to Echo360 Personal Capture and replaces ShareStream. There is a significant Blackboard upgrade happening in May 2019, and this tool will be more widely available then.
Note: A best practice is to keep your videos UNDER 7-10 minutes. The point of using these tools is that you are not recreating a full hour-long lecture for preparatory material. They should be just one of the ways in which students can prepare for a face-to-face session, where the focus should be on active learning techniques to keep them engaged. See the selected resources below for more information.
Polling for Understanding
At UICOM we use a product called Poll Everywhere. It is an audience response system that uses mobile devices, Twitter, and the web. Responses are displayed in real-time to promote discussion. Here is a document created for faculty to use it effectively.
According to a 2016 survey on technology use by UI College of Medicine students, 70% of them indicated that they frequently use educational apps on their mobile devices. While we have not gone to a full mobile device implementation for students and faculty, many students already use these devices for educational purposes. As faculty are increasingly using these devices for teaching, we thought it might be helpful to list some resources you might consider implementing in your instructional sessions.
- The Library of the Health Sciences has a great page listing all of the apps that are available to all UICOM students and faculty. It includes apps such as:
- PubMed for Handhelds
- Access Medicine (and others in this series)
- Clinical Pharmacology
- National Institutes of Health Mobile Gallery
Subject Specific Mobile Apps
If you have suggestions for apps to be included on this list, contact your instructional designer.
Brame, C. J. (2016). Effective educational videos: Principles and guidelines for maximizing student learning from video content. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 15(6), 1-6.
Issa, N., Mayer, R. E., Schuller, M., Wang, E., Shapiro, M. B., & DaRosa, D. a. (2013). Teaching for understanding in medical classrooms using multimedia design principles. Medical Education, 47 , 388-396.
Moffett, J. (2015). Twelve tips for ‘flipping’ the classroom. Medical Teacher, 37, 331-336.
Norman, M. K. (2017). Twelve tips for reducing production time and increasing long-term usability of instructional video. Medical Teacher, 39(8), 808-812. DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2017.1322190
Walling, A., Istas, K., Bonaminio, G. A., Paolo, A. M., Fontes, J. D., Davis, N., & Berardo, B. A. (2016). Medical student perspectives of active learning: A focus group study. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. DOI: 10.10080/10401334.2016.1247708
White, C., Bradley, E., Martindale, J., Roy, P., Patel, K., Yoon, M., & Worden, M. K. (2014). Why are medical students ‘checking out’ of active learning in a new curriculum? Medical Education, 48, 315-324. DOI:10.1111/medu.12356